Subramanyan Chandrasekhar On Stars, Their Evolution and Their Stability

John N. Bahcall on How the Sun Shines.

Wikipedia: Stars

Nuclear Reactions

James Chadwick on The Neutron and Its Properties.

The discoveries of cosmic radiation and the positron.

Ernest Lawrence on The Evolution of the Cyclotron.

Hans Bethe on Energy Production in Stars.

William Fowler on Experimental and Theoretical Nuclear Astrophysics; the Quest for the Origin of the Elements.

B2FH E. Margaret Burbidge, G. R. Burbidge, William A. Fowler, and F. Hoyle, Synthesis of the Elements in Stars, Rev.Mod.Phys. 29, 547-650 (1957)


Wikipedia: Supernovae

NASA: Supernovae Remnants


Albert Einstein 1923 Fundamental Ideas and Problems of the Theory of Relativity. See, especially, pages 483 and 484.

Einstein 1949 Reply to Criticisms. See, especially, Einstein's remarks concerning the essays by E. A. Milne, G. Lemaitre, and L. Infeld as concerns the cosmological problem.


Wikipedia: Alexander Friedmann

Тропп, Э.А., Френкель, В.Я., и Чернин А. Д. 1988, Александр Александрович Фридман (Москва: Наука)


Schrödinger, E. 1939, Physica 6, 899 The Proper Vibrations of the Expanding Universe.

Schrödinger, E. 1956, Expanding Universes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)


Wikipedia: Edwin Hubble

Hubble, E. 1929, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 3 A Relation Between Distance and Radial Velocity Among Extra-Galactic Nebulae.


Sumner, W.Q. 1994, ApJ, 429, 491 On the Variation of Vacuum Permittivity in Friedmann Universes.

Sumner, W.Q., & Sumner, D.Y. 2000, “Nauka i Obrazovaniye,” 4/5, 113-116. Gorno Altaysk, Russia Coevolution of Quantum Wave Functions and the Friedmann Universe.

Sumner, W.Q., & Vityaev, E.E. 2000, Hubble Redshift. This paper contains the derivation of redshift for contracting Friedmann universes and a fit to early redshift data showing acceleration.

Sumner, W.Q. 2004, Observational Evidence from Supernovae for a Contracting Universe This contains fits to modern redshift data and a derivation of the deceleration parameter using the largest observed redshift.

Sumner, W.Q. 2005, On the variation of the fine-structure constant in Friedmann Universes

Sumner, W.Q. 2015, Hubble Redshift Revisited