Additional References and Information

Contact: Bill Sumner

Redshift Fit

Hubble Redshift Revisited

Hubble redshift fits using physics from the 1920's with no dark energy.
Posted 9/11/2015

Here is a presentation at Дом Учёных (House of Scientists),
"Dark Energy" and "Dark Matter" in Friedmann Universes: Understanding modern puzzles with physics from the 1920's
William Q. Sumner
January 16, 2012
St. Petersburg, Russia

Drinking with a barmaid, remembering Niels Bohr and George Gamow.

Einstein, A.E. 1916, Ann. d. Phys., 49, 769 Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie

Friedmann, A.A. 1922, Z. Phys., 10, 377 Über die Krümmung des Raumes

Fock, V. 1926, Z. Phys., 38, 242 Zur Schrödingerschen Wellenmechanik

Hubble, E. 1929, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp. 168-173 A Relation Between Distance and Radial Velocity Among Extra-Galactic Nubulae

Hubble, E., & Tolman, R. C. 1935, ApJ, 82, 302 Two Methods of Investigating the Nature of the Nebular Red-shift

Schrödinger, E. 1939, Physica 6, 899 The Proper Vibrations of the Expanding Universe

Schrödinger, E. 1956, Expanding Universes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Sumner, W.Q. 1994, ApJ, 429, 491 On the Variation of Vacuum Permittivity in Friedmann Universes

Sumner, W.Q., & Sumner, D.Y. 2000, “Nauka i Obrazovaniye,” 4/5, 113-116. Gorno Altaysk, Russia Coevolution of Quantum Wave Functions and the Friedmann Universe

Sumner, W.Q., & Vityaev, E.E. 2000, Hubble Redshift This paper contains the derivation of redshift for contracting Friedmann universes and a fit to early redshift data showing acceleration.

Sumner, W.Q. 2004, Observational Evidence from Supernovae for a Contracting Universe This contains fits to modern redshift data and a derivation of the deceleration parameter using the largest observed redshift.

Sumner, W.Q. 2005, On the variation of the fine-structure constant in Friedmann Universes This also contains a high quality fit to modern redshift data used in the STP presentation.

Sumner, W.Q. 2015, Hubble Redshift Revisited

12 Haiku with Photographs from Chirchik There are hidden links in my head in the kitchen and in the flying swans in the last picture. It may be a challenge to understand President Lyndon Johnson's Texas accent in the first link. It is one of his secret White House recordings where he says "Course, if you start running from the communists, they may just chase you into your own kitchen." Our son Sasha is the boy in this link. Chirchik is in Uzbekistan.

Vera is a story about the adventures of a young woman Vera and her dog Shu. It was written by Bill Sumner and illustrated by Olya Solonnikova. Olya has a Master of Fine Arts from St. Petersburg Academy of Art, Russia. This pdf file is formatted specifically for the iPad (and viewed in iBooks) but works with any pdf viewer on any platform.

Free Falling Backwards describes how Bill Sumner came to understand that the universe is collapsing and will end in about 10 billion years. It doesn't use mathematics and describes a bit about life in Uzbekistan and Kittitas. This pdf file is formatted specifically for the iPad (and viewed in iBooks) but works with any pdf viewer on any platform.

"Oxygen on Everest" is a summary of Tom Hornbein's seminal 1962 research.

Here is the link to an earlier version of this Web Site.

Here is information about the images used on this website.

Here is the story of the "You Are Star Dust" poster.

Here are two videos explaining my conclusion that the Universe is now collapsing.

My friend Hideo Usami designs beautiful titanium products in Japan. These are his titanium vacuum tumblers which ring like bells!